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 case studies - power generation
Kashagan

T&T has developed two Unit Control Panels for Turbo Generator Set, Driven by a Steam Turbine (SNC1-6 model) The complete control system is composed by the following main parts:

1. Unit Control Panel (UCP)
2. Distributed Control System (DCS ); the DCS is connected via serial dual Lans, and all the UCP system variables events, alarms and shutdowns will be provided to the DCS via communication
3. Motor Control Center (MCC)
4. Generator Control Panel (GCP ) the GCP includes the protection electronic modules with modbus communication to the UCP
5. HMI remote workstation with PC display and keyboard
6. Plant ESD System
7. System one (Customer scope of supply)
8. Direct Current Panel
9. LMS/DMS – Load Management System/Data management system, this system communicate with the plant DCS via MODBUS and get relevant information of the UCP via the DCS. Control parameters for Load sharing and synchronization shall be hardwired. A Start and Stop control logic allows the manual and automatic control.

MANUAL
Manual Start-Up Sequence It enables a completely manual sequence from local HMI or from remote HMI (Local Manual Mode or Remote Manual Mode). Manual Stop Sequence Operator must stop all the auxiliary following a predefined sequence.

AUTOMATIC
Automatic Start-Up Sequence Automatic mode enable the completely automatic sequence that can be started from local HMI or from remote HMI by the command. The automatic sequence will start the auxiliaries and subsequently will activate the Steam Turbine start sequence on the PLC controller. The start-up sequence is realized in steps and each step is provided with an end feedback that will give the permissive to activate the next step. In case the end feedback is not received within the expected time, the step sequence will be aborted and the start-up sequence will be stopped. To restart the start-up sequence, will be necessary to push a Reset Start Steps push button on local HMI or remote HMI. All the alarm signals will be enabled and the trips automatically restored during the sequence process. Automatic Stop Sequence The stopping sequence is realized in steps and each step is provided with an end feedback that will give the permissive to activate the next step. There are three start-up modes available that can be set directly in section Operating Parameters: manual, automatic, semiautomatic. Once the start signal is sent to the turbine, the speed set point (the increase / decrease of its value) and the HP valve limiter are controlled either manually by the operator or automatically, according to the start-up mode selected.

Manual Start-up mode
When the manual mode is selected, the start-up sequence is completed in a fully manual way and goes through the following steps:
- A reset signal is sent to the turbine controller to reset all alarms and trips.
- The turbine speed set point is increased gradually by the operator to reach the 1st warm up speed value. (The rpm per second ramp slope according to which the speed set point changes is set through the Manual Slope parameter.) At the same time, the HP valve limiter opening and closing is changed manually by the operator.
- Once the 1st warm up value is reached, the speed increase stops, to resume only upon a manual action of the operator through command “raise speed” (provided the necessary time has elapsed – warm up time).
- The sequence is continued manually until the target, and the speed set point (the slope of its ramp) increases, still according to the slope set on the manual slope parameter. Semiautomatic Start-up mode When the semi-automatic mode is selected, the start-up sequence is completed in semiautomatic mode and goes through the following steps:
- A reset signal is sent to the turbine controller to reset all alarms and trips.
- The turbine speed set point is increased in an automatic way to reach the 1st warm up speed value.
- At the same time, the operator changes the HP valve limiter opening and closing manually.
- Once the 1st warm up value is reached, the speed increase stops, to resume only upon a manual action of the operator through command CONTINUE (provided the necessary time has elapsed – warm up time).
- The HP valve limiter is controlled manually until target speed, and the speed set point (the slope of its ramp) increases. Automatic Start-up mode When the automatic mode is selected, the start-up sequence is completed in automatic mode and goes through the following steps:
- A reset signal is sent to the turbine controller to reset all alarms and trips.
- The turbine speed set point is increased in an automatic way to reach the 1st warm up speed value.
- At the same time automatically the controller open the HP valve limiter to the corrispective limit.
- Once the 1st warm up value is reached, the speed increase stops, when the 1st warm up time elapsed the speed setpoint start to increase automatically to reach the target setpoint). At the same time automatically the controller open the HP valve limiter to the corrispective limit.
- The HP valve limiter is controlled automatically until target speed, and the speed set point (the slope of its ramp) increases.

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